Visualization skills are now considered a core competency of business and data analytics. This paper provides a detailed analysis of course descriptions, learning outcomes and assessment strategies, textbooks, and
visualization software used from a study of thirty-three visualization course syllabi from a diverse set of higher educational institutions in the United States. The results from this survey can be helpful to faculty teaching visualization courses for the first time. It also provides a comparative analysis for faculty who currently teach courses in visualization.
M&M’s®, Sampling, and x-bar/R Control Charts: A Demonstration and Validation
Matthew Castel, Boise State University, Boise, Idaho, USA
Relaying statistical concepts to students is difficult without “real-world” examples and corresponding data. However, it is difficult to obtain data for student usage, let alone have the data mean something to the student. This paper attempts to provide students with a hands-on demonstration to aid in their understanding and application of control charts using the tangibility of M&M’s®. During the demonstration, students gain an understanding of how to perform sampling, evaluate basic statistics, and leverage tangible data to create x-bar & R charts. The demonstration’s effectiveness is then assessed using a post-hoc data analysis of student examination data to evaluate the demonstration’s effect on student performance.
Keywords: control charts, M&Ms, SPC, x-bar chart, R chart
Priming Compassion in College Students
Bryant S. Thompson Jr., Northern Utah Academy for Math,
Engineering and Science – Ogden, Utah, USA
Bryant S. Thompson Sr., Weber State University – Ogden, Utah, USA
We conducted two studies relating to compassion, integrating behaviors, and thriving in college students. In the first study, we primed compassion (by providing compassion training to college students and having them journal about their own attitudes and acts of compassion for four weeks) and examined the relationship between compassion and integrating behaviors (other-report) and thriving. In the second study, we primed compassion (by having students read a salient story about compassion) and examined the relationship between compassion and integrating behaviors and the vitality component of thriving. Through the development of these two primes, we discovered that compassion has a strong association across primes with integrating behaviors (other-report and self-report) and thriving (self-report). These findings are essential to our understanding of these constructs and to our capacity to foster compassion, integrating behaviors, and thriving among college students. Going forward, we plan to incorporate additional, and more elaborate, compassion-based priming activities in the classroom and in broader contexts.
Puzzles in the College Classroom: An Optimization Model Approach to Martin Gardner’s Digit Placing Problem
Mike C. Patterson, Midwestern State University, Wichita Falls, TX, USA
John E. Martinez, Midwestern State University, Wichita Falls, TX, USA
Robert C. Forrester, Midwestern State University, Wichita Falls, TX, USA
Recreational mathematics is fun mathematics. It includes games, riddles, puzzles and magic squares. The purpose of this paper is to present an optimization model approach to one of Gardner’s puzzles, “A Digit-Placing Problem,” which appears in chapter seven (Eight Problems) in the book The Unexpected Hanging and Other Mathematical Diversions (Gardner, 1969, 1991). The approach is to use a fun mathematical approach to learning for students engaged in a quantitative university classroom setting.
Keywords: recreational math, modeling optimization, puzzles, spreadsheet, Martin Gardner
Teaching Business Analytics Students Logistic Regression
Using Python and R
Min Li, California State University, Sacramento, California, USA
This article discusses challenges and surprising computational results from teaching business analytics students logistic regression using Python in a predictive analytics course. One solution is to incorporate both Python and R in such courses so students can learn both open-source tools in the same course. An exercise is provided to have students compare the results from Python and R. The experience and technical details shared in this article should be valuable to other instructors teaching this topic using Python or R in similar courses to help students obtain accurate computational results.
Keywords: business analytics, logistic regression, open-source software, predictive analytics
Remote Teaching Methods that Drive Student Engagement and Institutional Promotion
Mary Pisnar, Baldwin Wallace University, Berea, Ohio
The historic shift to remote learning that occurred over the past three years has enabled changes in course delivery in higher education that may have otherwise taken years to come to fruition. In this study remote teaching methods were identified by student focus groups and investigated through survey research connecting specific teaching methods, student motivation, student cheating with student engagement and institutional promotion as measured by the Net Promoter Score (NPS). Data show that the human factor in teaching is indeed a significant predictor of student engagement and institutional promotion. The critical issue of student cheating and poor motivation that are inherent to remote learning are shown to have a detrimental effect on student engagement.
Teaching Data Literacy and Sports Economic Fundamentals using Fantasy Sports
Adam Patterson, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT, USA
Matthew Mocarsky, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT, USA
Jun Cho, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT, USA
Oskar Harmon, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT, USA
Craig Calvert, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT, USA
Teaching data literacy and sports economic fundamentals can be seen by students as unengaging when taught in the traditional lecture format. An activity using student participation in a fantasy league draft was used to actively engage students. This activity focused on learning the economic concepts of the Noll-Scully measure, Gini coefficient, Lorenz curve and the Herfindahl-Hirschman Index (HHI). Marginal product was used to evaluate player performance, and competitive balance were used to evaluate league performance. It also taught data literacy skills such as locating and entering data and using Excel functions to organize and clean data. Students ran regression models to proxy the concept of marginal product in evaluating relative performance and collected data to compare players’ predicted point contribution. The activity can be refined for similar courses in data literacy and sports economics.
Keywords: data literacy, economics; fantasy sports; Microsoft Excel; competitive balance; marginal product
A Responsive Methodology for Developing Student Research Skills
University of South Carolina-Aiken, South Carolina USA
Successful data analytics begins with the quality of the data used for analysis. This paper addresses developing superior data analytic search skills in a class that requires students to demonstrate their preparation to apply their acquired proficiencies to their future endeavors. Students prepare a comprehensive 8-10-page analytic paper.
Keywords: Online Dataset Research, Skill Development, Google Dataset Search, Internet Searching, Preparedness, Employability, and Curriculum Planning
Building the Speaking Skills Required in Today’s Workplace
Lisa Berardino, State University of New York, Polytechnic Institute, Utica, NY, USA
Dorrie Gregory, State University of New York, Polytechnic Institute, Utica, NY, USA
Julia Gregory, State University of New York, Polytechnic Institute, Utica, NY, USA
How can we meaningfully teach the speaking skills needed in today’s evolving workplace environment? Today’s work environment ranges from traditional office settings to the newer hybrid work formats using digital tools. As artificial intelligence tools are entering the workplace, how does this change the role and importance of speaking skills? How do digital tools change traditional PowerPoint presentations?
This project’s purpose is to study how to build the range of speaking skills required in today’s evolving work environment. This paper explores how speech is currently taught in an undergraduate communication course. Recommendations are made for students, educators, and managers for improving the speaking skills required in today’s work environment. Attention is now on the role of ChatGPT and artificial intelligence (Skrabut, 2023). A key principle in giving speeches is to know your audience (Hop, M and Moon, T., 2009). AI and digital tools such as online polling help with this key principle.
Keywords: public speaking, meeting management, guidelines for online presentations, digital tools for speaking
Technology Agility and Soft Skills - A Unique Duo for CPA Evolution and Advancement of the Accounting Profession: How a Small University Tackled the Challenge
Jacob Peng, Robert Morris University, PA, USA
Lois D. Bryan, Robert Morris University, PA, USA
Ira Abdullah, Robert Morris University, PA, USA
The accounting profession and accrediting bodies are expecting today’s graduates to not only be technologically competent and well versed in the use of emerging technologies, but also to possess the “soft skills” necessary to enter and succeed in the profession. The job of preparing accounting students for this role falls to the faculty and the universities. A major challenge now faced by faculty and universities is how to introduce emerging technologies and soft skills into an already overburdened curriculum at a time when enrollments and resources are declining. This paper provides insights to accounting program leaders and faculty members by describing the approach an AACSB accredited accounting program, at a small university, took to meet this challenge.
Keywords: CPA Evolution, professional development, technology agility, soft skills, accountants
Using Gaming Applications to Teach the Four Ps of Marketing
Renee C. Tacka, York College of Pennsylvania – York, Pennsylvania, USA
Learning how to apply and use the marketing mix – or the four Ps – is foundational to a Principles of Marketing business course. Traditional learning methods rely on reading, memorization, and the classification of activities into the appropriate “bucket” – product, price, promotion, or place. Modern teaching methods should expand beyond traditional means by incorporating technology into the learning process. Research has shown that the use of technology not only increases the level of excitement to learn, but also the level of engagement at which students participate in learning. The purpose of this paper is to describe an active learning activity that was introduced to a group of 34 students enrolled in a hybrid, 100-level marketing course in spring 2021. Overall, aggregate feedback from the marketing mix activity indicated that students enjoyed the learning experience and found it to be a welcome change from standard assignments. Not only did student comments show congruence with the learning objectives, but also the average grades for the marketing mix activity ranged from 3% to 10% higher than the quiz averages, further supporting research that experiential learning improves student performance.
Keywords: principles of marketing, marketing mix, four Ps, experiential learning, gaming applications, higher education
Remembering Why Small Effects Are Impressive:
A Student Learning Driven Model for Curriculum Change
Jonathan R. Anderson, Southern Utah University, Utah, USA
Managing the curriculum change process is challenging at best. This paper identifies a framework for faculty groups to approach curriculum change and the effects of changes on student learning outcome assessment performance. A traditional model for curriculum change is reviewed and compared to a Student Learning Driven Model for Curriculum Change. The effects of implementing this new model are outlined and discussed. This model provides a pathway to discover that in the curriculum change process, if curriculum change can improve student learning outcome assessment performance, even small effects are impressive.
Do Multiple Learner Interactions Improve Learning for Accounting Students Having Differing Academic Achievement and Demographics?
Janet A. Meade, University of Houston – Houston, Texas, USA
Kiran Parthasarathy, University of Houston – Houston, Texas, USA
This study examines whether prior academic achievement and certain demographic characteristics affect the types of learner interaction chosen by online introductory accounting students and whether those choices improve learning. The two types of online learner interactions that we study are learner-content (proxied by the viewing of instructor-created videos) and learner-instructor (proxied by the correctness of real-time polling responses). We partition our sample into subsamples based on prior GPA, age, semester hours, major, first time in college, receipt of financial aid, citizenship, gender, and ethnicity. Our results show that younger, male, and Hispanic students tend to select learner interactions that result in suboptimal learning, whereas Asian students and those with higher GPAs or financial aid optimize their learning by selecting multiple interactions. Our findings emphasize the need for educators to include multiple learner interactions in their courses and for students to take advantage of multiple learning aids.
Value of Certified Fraud Examiner Certification – Perceptions of Government Financial Managers
Mississippi College School of Business, Clinton, Mississippi USA
Financial managers of any organization have a responsibility to design, operate and assess a system of internal controls that includes safeguards against fraud. Professionals can aid in the fight against fraud by providing competencies in the areas of internal control design, governance, and fraud risk assessment. Services provided by those with expertise in fraud assessment will aid in the prevention and detection of fraud. The demand for such services has given rise to organizations which promote fraud prevention services. The Certified Fraud Examiner (CFE) credential offered by the Association of Certified Fraud Examiners provides testing, certification, and continued education for Certified Fraud Examiners. This research examines perceptions of government financial managers (GFMs) and public accountants working in government audit fields related to perceptions of the quality of service and career enhancements benefits associated with CFE certification.
Based upon our analysis of survey responses, we conclude that CFE certification provides benefits to both the certificate holder and to those who seek the services provided by CFEs. Additionally, respondents agree that many of the benefits will increase in the coming years. Our research may assist students who seek careers in fraud prevention in the development of career goals and strategies. Our research conclusions may also assist government financial managers in evaluating the need for and benefits provided by CFEs. Researchers may wish to extend this research to study the impact of similar specializations and credentials offered by other accounting-related organizations.
Keywords: Government Financial Management, Fraud, Certification, Accounting
Reimagining the Introduction to Business Course: Comparison of Two Designs
Lisa M. Walters, State University of New York-Fredonia, New York, USA
Bret Wagner, Western Michigan University, Michigan, USA
Decker Haines, Western Michigan University, Michigan, USA
With current enrollment decreases and increased cost pressures, recruitment and retention of students is critical. Introductory courses provide a vital platform from which a student may build a successful collegiate career. Introduction to Business (I2B) courses are such courses and provide a great way for even non-business students to gain useful skills.
The study provides insight into historical developments and improvements of such courses, including the use of gamification, simulation, and reflection. It evaluates two I2B course designs, both of which employ a next generation simulation. One design is an online offering at a large institution; the second is a face-to-face offering at a small institution. The purpose of the evaluation is to determine if one design is superior to the other. Explanations for specific design features are provided. The outcome of the study demonstrates that both designs are effective in achieving defined goals, consistent with class size and modality.
Keywords: business simulation, introduction to business, pedagogy, gamification, course design, problem-based learning
Exam Format as a Determinant of Student Success in a Cost
Karen E. Robinson, York College of Pennsylvania, York, Pennsylvania, USA
This paper examines the important role that exam format play in assessing students’ performance. Using data collected in an accounting course over four semesters, the results are analyzed to determine if the choice of exam format affect outcomes. The analysis compares performance of students on interim exams in a given format comprised of a combination of multiple-choice and essay/short problem questions, to the student selected exam format of all multiple-choice or all essay/short problem questions for the final exam. The study concludes that the students performed better on the final exam than the interim exams.
Keywords: exam format, course assessment tool, accounting education, grading of students, tests and measurements
Business Student Personality Profiles:
Using TIPI for Advising and Course Design in Business Education
Amanda Remo, Western Michigan University, Kalamazoo, MI, USA
Randi Jiang, Grand Valley State University, Grand Rapids, MI, USA
Anne M.A. Sergeant, Grand Valley State University, Grand Rapids, MI, USA
This research explores the association between personality types, the selection of undergraduate business majors, and the pedagogical preferences of students. It uses a simple, convenient, Ten-Item Personality Inventory (TIPI) to identify an individual's five-factor model (FFM) personality attributes (extroversion, agreeableness, contentiousness, emotional stability, and openness to new ideas). Business majors are classified into person-oriented, thing-oriented, and both or other majors. Person-oriented individuals scored higher on extroversion, agreeableness, and openness to new ideas. Thing-oriented individuals scored higher on conscientiousness. This research also explores how personality traits affect preferences for different pedagogical designs. Four pedagogical aspects are examined: class size, class delivery mode (typically assigned by administration), course assignment structure, and use of in-class time (generally under the purview of instructors). The two personality traits that most affect pedagogical preferences are extroversion and conscientiousness. TIPI can be used to personalize more advising, course administration, and course design.
Assessing Disruptive Innovation Research in Management:
A Bibliometric Analysis
Alabama A&M University
In today’s competitive business environment, innovation is fundamental to entrepreneurial success and productivity. Business schools (B-Schools) play a significant role in preparing future entrepreneurs and leaders with tools that are essential to advancing innovation across various industries. This Bibliometric study provides an analysis of the performance of disruptive innovation research done by B-Schools in the USA. Using the Web of Science Social Science Citation Index SSCI database, we constructed a dataset comprising of 75 publications on disruptive innovation research in the business management discipline, for the period 2011-2022. These 75 publications were cited 3,024 times and represented the scholarly work of 195 authors affiliated with 213 institutions. The number of publications increased by 11.5% while the frequency of citations increased from 159 to 19,397, representing an approximately 12,000% increase. Based on citation analysis, a top 5 most influential publications list was constructed and emerging themes as well as research trends were identified. The results point to niche themes that are global and go beyond management, giving rise to a future research agenda around disruptive innovation and implications
The Water Park Locker Problem – An Interactive Spreadsheet Exercise in an Operations and Analytics class
Jaideep T. Naidu, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA USA
An important skill expected of business majors is their ability to use spreadsheets. Our experience has shown that students are enthusiastic when they can relate to the topic and when the spreadsheet is interactive in nature. We present the Amusement/Water Park related locker problem where guests must enter the water park areas in their swimwear. Hence, they rent lockers to store their clothes and valuables. This article is motivated by a recent visit to a water park where we could rent a locker for an entire day. To make the problem worthy of classroom discussion, we choose to include the “return” concept. In other words, there is an incentive for guests when they let the water park staff know before a certain time that they do not need the locker anymore. This enables the staff to keep track of available lockers at all times. When demand for lockers exceeds supply, the problem is similar to the overbooking models of the airlines industry and the hotel industry. Thus, this problem can be used as an example while discussing such overbooking models in a topic called revenue management. The students are led by the Professor in a brainstorming session related to an interesting scenario of this locker problem. Finally, the students are guided in building an interactive Excel spreadsheet. The locker problem lends itself to an interesting discussion even in a Computer Science course where the students can be asked to code this problem using Python or another programming language.
Keywords: Spreadsheet skills, Revenue Management, management strategy and brainstorming
One Bridge, Two Gaps: The Unrealized Interprofessional Potential
for Law and Accounting ClinicalCollaboration
Beth Lyon, Cornell University - Ithaca, New York, USA
John McKinley, Cornell University - Ithaca, New York, USA
Marquise Riley, Cornell University - Ithaca, New York, USA
Adam Vars, Cornell University - Ithaca, New York, USA
Law Schools offer many experiential learning programs to law students. Law school experiential learning tends to be siloed, involving only law students, and does not cross disciplines to facilitate interprofessional education. Experiential learning involving both law and accounting students will benefit them throughout their careers as they will work together on teams to serve clients. Law students can participate in Low-Income Taxpayer Clinics (“LITC”), where students represent clients in tax disputes with the IRS. Accounting students can participate in Volunteer Income Tax Assistance (“VITA”) programs, preparing tax returns and helping clients with tax compliance. Once law and accounting students start to practice, tax compliance and tax representation are intertwined and are not siloed between law and accounting. To help students experience this interdisciplinary relationship, law schools and accounting programs need to create experiential learning opportunities where law and accounting students work together. Cornell University has developed a program to help facilitate interprofessional learning between law and accounting students.
Keywords: Interprofessional learning, Law, Accounting, Tax, Clinical education, VITA
Beyond the Ledger: Developing Leaders in Accounting
Benjamin Huegel, Le Moyne College, Syracuse, New York, USA
Paul J. Ballard, Marywood University, Scranton, Pennsylvania, USA
Amy Vandenberg, St. Norbert College, De Pere, Wisconsin, USA
Given the complexities of today’s business environment, accounting graduates are expected to be prepared to enter the workforce with a combination of technical knowledge and non-technical skills. While many accounting programs emphasize technical aspects of the field of accounting, it is becoming increasingly important for programs to pay more attention to the development of non-technical skills such as leadership. This article provides an overview of a course that incorporated technical training in the area of emotional intelligence to help students enhance their leadership abilities. Additionally, a laboratory setting where students were responsible for leading small groups in principles-level courses was utilized to enhance student improvement. A summary of course components, implementation challenges, and student feedback is provided.
ChatGPT and Current Events in the Economics Classroom
Colene Trent, Union University - Tennessee, USA
This paper discusses the effectiveness of using generative AI technology, specifically ChatGPT, to cover current events in the International Economics classroom. The author outlines an assignment designed to provide students with the opportunity to interact with and learn from ChatGPT. The use of AI technology can improve student learning, engagement, and critical thinking by helping students connect theory to real-world applications. Upon completion of the assignment, students reported a greater awareness of current events impacting the international economic environment, an increased ability to interact in meaningful ways with the chatbot, and a greater understanding of the benefits and limitations of ChatGPT. Students were also significantly more likely to oppose a ban on ChatGPT in college classes. Despite the concerns educators have about large language models like ChatGPT, the author suggests that faculty can add new dimensions to their teaching practices by implementing generative AI technology in their courses.
Keywords: ChatGPT, artificial intelligence, generative AI, education, pedagogy, current events
New Barriers to Emotional Intelligence in Business Communications
Amanda Evert, Southwestern Oklahoma State University, OK, USA
Jonna Myers, Southwestern Oklahoma State University, OK, USA
Robert Williams, Southwestern Oklahoma State University, OK, USA
Cinthia Pinon Chavez, Southwestern Oklahoma State University, OK, USA
For decades, business educators have emphasized the importance of adaptive curriculum and dynamic instructional techniques (Berbegal-Mirabent et al., 2020; Carlile et al., 2016), and COVID-19 has further magnified the need for flexible, adaptive business education (Aristovnik et al., 2020). In this study, business students were invited to play a game of charades with teammates who were either masked or on a Zoom call. Seventy-two upper-level marketing and management students enrolled in business courses participated. Students then reflected on their experience and discussed these new barriers to business communications and emotional intelligence. Ultimately, 100% of students reported finding the lesson useful.
Keywords: Emotional Intelligence, Business Communications, Covid-19, Zoom, Business Education
Using SEM Methodology for Analyzing Cyber SecurityPhenomenon
Roberto J. Mejias, Colorado State University-Pueblo, Colorado, United States
Joshua J. Greer, Colorado State University-Pueblo, United States
Gabrila G. Greer, Colorado State University-Pueblo, United States
Raul Y. Reyes, University of Arizona, Arizona, United States
The popularity of structural equation modeling (SEM) as a statistical technique has grown significantly in recent decades. Additionally, the use of SEM has proven to be an effective and innovative graphical methodology for researchers and higher education students exploring the determinants of cyber security phenomenon, specifically cyber security threat awareness. SEM consists of a set of methods for constructing research models to represent how observable and theoretical variables are causally and structurally correlated with each other. These causational and correlational equations are graphically presented simultaneously as one statistical estimation procedure to test whether empirical data supports the proposed research model. This paper presents a methodology for students and researchers to develop a SEM model for assessing the determinants of Cyber Security Awareness (CSA) that supports their cyber security programs of study. Student questionnaire surveys were developed, administered, and analyzed to determine if the survey items, representing instrumental variables, converged upon their respective latent constructs and their correlations to their target variable of interest: CSA. Our paper also illustrates the use of factor analysis to develop latent theoretical constructs and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) models that will assist higher education students to develop a SEM model that test the hypotheses in their proposed research model.